Catherine Alexeyevna (née Marta Skowrońska) (April 15, 1684 – May 6, 1727). Second spouse of Peter the Great (became his wife on February 19, 1712). On May 7, 1724 Peter crowned her as empress-consort and made her his co-ruler. On January, 1725 she became Empress of Russia.
The painting is based on the original portrait created by Jean-Marc Nattier. These kind of images are referred to as the “Natier-Moor’s type.” The same type can be found on a miniature portrait of Catherine by Grigory Musinsky, which is slightly larger than this one and is now part of the Hermitage collection. Catherine is depicted wearing a brocade gown and an ermine mantle, with a ribbon of the Order of St. Catherine. There is a gold tiara with pearls and red stones.