Painter, battle painter, genre artist, portraitist, landscapist. Studied under Karl Brullov and Alexander Sauerweid at the Imperial Academy of Arts (1843-1844). Taught at the School of Drawing, Society for the Encouragement of Artists, St Petersburg (1840-1842). Contributed to exhibitions (from 1842). Foreign fellow of the Imperial Academy of Arts (1843-1844). Summoned to St Petersburg by order of Nicholas I to complete works commissioned from deceased Alexander Sauerweid (1864). Appointed teacher of drawing for Grand Dukes Nicholas Nikolayevich and Michael Nikolayevich. Taught at the school of the Society of St Petersburg Artists (1840-1842). Taught at the Imperial Academy of Arts (1848-1894). Academician of painting (from 1845), professor of battle-painting (from 1848), member of the Academy Council (from 1859), first-class professor (с 1872). Professor emeritus (1888).