Painter, graphic artist, history painter, book illus¬trator, theatrical designer. Studied at the Imperial Alexander Lyceum in St Petersburg (1853–1859), at the Imperial Academy of Arts (1859–1863). Lived in Germany and France (1861–1867), took lessons from Wilhelm von Kaulbach in Berlin (1861) and Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier in Paris (1863). Contributed to exhibitions (from 1862). Academi¬cian of history painting (from 1865). Full member of the Russian Archeology Society (from 1865).