Painter, art historian, art critic, museum curator. Studied law, history and philology at St. Petersburg university (1889–1896). Studied at the Higher School of Art, Imperial Academy of Arts (1894–1896) and at Anton Ažbe’s school in Munich (1896–1898). Academician of painting (1913). Contributed to exhibitions (from 1898). Taught at the Ažbe/Grabar school in Munich (1898–1901). Trustee (1913–1918) and director (1918–1925) of the Tretyakov Gallery; director of the Central Art and Restoration Studios (1918–1930).