Velvet, galloon, gold embroidery
Velvet kokoshniks with gold embroidered patterns were worn by townswomen from the lower classes. Such headdresses were also worn by wet nurses in wealthy families. “On weekdays a wet nurse usually wears a shirt of heavy fabric, a sarafan and a muslin cap; on Sundays and holidays, a galloon-decorated camlet sarafan, muslin shirt and velvet kokoshnik” (Panaev 1844). The needlework was done by skilled gold embroiderers, usually in convents.
The dress of well-to-do townswomen and merchants’ wives was usually sewn from luxurious fabrics: silk or gold brocade, or silk cannele. Even the lining of a sarafan could be of silk with Oriental abr patterns of surprisingly beautiful coloration.