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Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible) (1530–1584)

Ivan IV was the son of Grand Prince Vasily III, of the House of Rurik, and Elena Glinskaya, who came from a line of Lithuanian knights. He was crowned in 1547 as the first “Tsar of All the Russias”.

With the participation of a narrow circle of close associates he carried out a number of reforms in the 1550s. At the first Zemsky Sobor (Assembly of the Land) in 1549 a law code for the whole of Russia, the Sudebnik, was adopted and a regular army of streltsy – people under arms who carried out permanent military service for pay – was established. The Stoglavy Sobor (Hundred Chapters Assembly) was summoned in 1551 to unify religious rites and deal with matters of canonisation. Ivan conducted successful campaigns to absorb the Khanates of Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556), as well as Bashkiria (1557). He was defeated in the Livonian War to gain access to the Baltic (1558–1583). Clashes with boyar circles opposed to Ivan led to the formation in 1565 of the oprichnina (from the Old Russian oprich, meaning “special” or “apart”) when, after separating off part of the country and the troops under his own personal rule, the Tsar took extreme measures to crush the old boyar families so that power could be further centralised. Ivan supported the development of culture, the building of churches and enlightenment. According to various sources he had as many as seven wives. He was called “Terrible” (Grozny) by the people because of the savage executions of political opponents. Historiography has given him an extremely ambiguous evaluation.


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Крышка раки преподобного Александра Свирского
Крышка раки преподобного Александра Свирского
1643
Portrait of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible
Portrait of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible
Before mid-18th century
The Taking of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
The Taking of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
1799–1800
Портрет патриарха Филарета
Портрет патриарха Филарета
Царь Иоанн Грозный и иерей Сильвестр во время большого московского пожара 24 июня 1547 года
Царь Иоанн Грозный и иерей Сильвестр во время большого московского пожара 24 июня 1547 года
1856
Ермак
Ермак
Убиение царевича Дмитрия в Угличе
Убиение царевича Дмитрия в Угличе
Иван Грозный у тела убитого им сына в Александровской слободе
Иван Грозный у тела убитого им сына в Александровской слободе
1861
Hosting the Boyar (Prince Serebryany Visiting Boyar Morozov)
Hosting the Boyar (Prince Serebryany Visiting Boyar Morozov)
1865
Мозаичисты перед «судом трех» в Венеции во второй половине XVI века
Мозаичисты перед «судом трех» в Венеции во второй половине XVI века
1866
Канун Варфоломеевской ночи
Канун Варфоломеевской ночи
1868
Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584)
Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584)
Ivan the Terrible Showing Treasures to the English Ambassador Jerome Horsey
Ivan the Terrible Showing Treasures to the English Ambassador Jerome Horsey
Tsar Ivan the Terrible Admiring Vasilisa Melentieva
Tsar Ivan the Terrible Admiring Vasilisa Melentieva
1875
Masterpieces
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The Taking of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
The Taking of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible
1799–1800
Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584)
Ivan the Terrible (1530–1584)
Ivan the Terrible Showing Treasures to the English Ambassador Jerome Horsey
Ivan the Terrible Showing Treasures to the English Ambassador Jerome Horsey
Yermak’s Conquest of Siberia
Yermak’s Conquest of Siberia
1895
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The Mediateka

Year: 2011 | An interactive program, Virtual tours | Language: Russian

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